The Universal Controller

 

 

The PicoCell family of controllers is universally compatible across a variety of pumps and solar panels.  It will operate most pumps or motors regardless of whether they are single or three phase, 50 or 60Hz, and 115 or 230V. The PicoCell will operate with any type of PV panel providing flexibility in array design.  One controller, universal simplicity.

 

 

DC pumps have become the norm for off-grid solar installations, but they are very expensive compared to their AC counterparts and require specialized controllers that support a single pump or limited family of pumps. Additionally, lower cost, single phase pumps were previously not even an option for off-grid solar.  With PicoCell the rules have changed.

The PicoCell can run either single or three phase pumps, both 115 and 230Vac, and 50 or 60Hz, just by selecting the correct DIP switch combination that matches the AC pump’s parameters. Because the PicoCell is a firmware based architecture it can “adapt” the power to accommodate the initial power surge needed to start an AC motor. The PicoCell greatly simplifies the design, procurement and installation of a solar pumping system. By representing an integrated system that incorporates the functionality normally served by a complex mix of system components such as an inverter, variable frequency drive, MPPT controller, voltage boost and phase initiator (for 3 wire motors). All of this functionality is in one integrated device with a form factor smaller than a common tissue box.

The PicoCell represents a truly universal solar controller where the same unit can run any AC motor load: pump, compressor, fan, etc. To optimize system efficiency the unit generates a true sine wave with variable frequency to match the available power coming from the solar PV with pump power at all times.

The PicoCell operates both single phase and three phase AC pumps, even the single phase 2-wire surface pumps that are ubiquitous in the North American market. Industrial VFDs do not have the ability to run single phase AC loads because these loads are designed to be grid connected. The PicoCell utilizes cutting edge silicon carbide high speed switching MOSFET devices, which not only results in 92-95% range efficiencies, but also contributes to the unit’s small size and low operating losses.

Firmware vs Hardware

SunTech Drive’s development team is guided by the simple mantra: “Have reliable hardware, shift complexity to firmware!” This means that the hardware is designed to be robust, while the entire application specific complexity is shifted to software which is embedded in a microprocessor.

Instead of building a mechanically and electrically unique configuration for every combination and permutation of application variables, the PicoCell uses adaptive firmware to achieve a “one controller fits all” objective.  A series of clearly labeled dip switches are configured at installation to select application variables and the controller then uses the ITS adaptive firmware to provide appropriate control of the loads.

This takes the complexity out of the hands of the user or installer and automates the process using software.  Rather than having to integrate several different functional components, the PicoCell runs one holistic and integrated algorithm that incorporates all of these functions.

DC pump controllers are based on legacy electromagnetic design concepts that have not changed much over time.  They are typically limited to operating one pump or small family of pumps  They are reminiscent of the  large arcade games of the eighties that were the size of a refrigerator and only ran a single game, versus the modern smart phone that can play virtually any game.  The PicoCell represents the smartphone of the power electronics world.  Even with extremely small form factor and low price, it can drive most any AC motor with any solar array.  Pick your favorite pump, now there’s an app for that.

The PicoCell effectively provides five separate system components in one fully integrated controller:

  1. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Controller
  2. Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
  3. Voltage Boost
  4. Inverter
  5. Phase Initiator

Of these functional elements it is the PicoCell’s patented voltage boost that has the most dramatic impact on customer economics.  80% of the total cost of a typical solar pumping installation is comprised of the PV array.  For small AC pumps the PicoCell is capable of cutting that PV capacity requirement in half.  Combined with the consolidation of the power electronics, total project costs are reduced on average by 30-50%.

For distributors the universality of the controller represents an opportunity to reduce and simplify inventory.  Pick any AC pump, any panels, add a Pico the mix and you are done.

One device now does the job.

Power Blending

 

 

Some applications require duty cycles that extend beyond sunlight hours.  In some cases the cost of power from either the grid or a generator is exorbitantly high creating a financial incentive to offload to solar whenever possible.

In these instances, SunTech offers the PicoBlender.  As cloud cover shades the panels or as day turns to night, the system automatically and intelligently blends solar power with grid power to maintain 100% operating power in any weather, day or night while minimizing the variable cost of energy.

 

 

Realtime power blending opens up many more applications to solar power.  Some applications require a constant power level regardless of the current weather or time of day. In other instances, the high cost of grid or diesel power is a motivator to offload as much as possible to solar.

By utitizing the PicoBlender, the system can blend power sources in realtime.  For instance, as a day turns cloudy, instead of functioning pump flow, the pond or pool filter now maintains its full pressure and flow with the Pico system drawing the balance of power from the grid. In areas where the cost of electricity is high this can represent a ROI of approximately 15 months.  The diagram below illustrates the blending of power from multiple sources, utilizing solar as much as possible to minimize operating expenses.

 

 

An additional benefit of the PicoBlender is that it provides power factor correction for single phase AC loads when connected to the grid. Previously heavy inductive loads, with huge in-rush current now, operate at unity power factor with an additional soft start feature.

 

Load Facing Nanogrid Load Controller

 

A common problem with today’s micro-grids is that they need to be over designed in order to provide stability when large inductive loads come online.  Large inductive loads can be water pumps, compressors or fans.  When they are directly connected to the AC side of the micro-grid they can consume enormous amounts of current (power) during their start-up, which can destabilize the entire micro-grid’s operation. The PicoBlender allows these loads to be isolated.

 

If each inductive load has a PicoBlender controller that decouples the inductive load from the micro-grid, the PicoBlender controller will make sure that the inductive load does not generate a power spike on the grid. Furthermore, because PicoCell has bi-directional communication capability, it is possible not only to monitor an inductive load’s operation and provide power metering services for the micro-grid operator, but also to schedule operation of those inductive loads based on the excess power that might exist in the microgrid. This occurs when a battery bank that provides the microgrid’s stability is fully charged, while renewable energy sources (solar or wind) are still producing power, so during that time, certain operations, like pumping water to a tank or waste water treatment, can be scheduled by communicating between a centralized microgrid controller and PicoCells that are distributed around the microgrid’s periphery.

 

Solar Powering Single Phase Motors

 

There are more than 100 million fossil fuel based gen-sets worldwide that are running inductive loads, mainly pumps and compressors below the 5kW power range. In this power band, almost all gas/diesel gen-sets are running single phase loads. In India, fossil fuel gen-sets running water pumps for agriculture contribute 17% of total carbon emissions nationally.

 

The PicoCell controller is unique in that it can run single phase inductive loads: pumps, compressors, and fans for either 120Vac or 230Vac and either 50 or 60Hz. The same device can run 2-wire or 3-wire single phase motors that are common, displacing the so called “control box” that consists of a relay and starting capacitor.

The true technology breakthrough is in the PicoCell’s control algorithm that is embedded in the firmware. Instead of utilizing a relay and capacitors for starting phase motors, the PicoCell provides variable frequency drive capability with a true sinewave of variable voltage magnitude and frequency to run the single phase inductive loads. If single phase motors are driven by a PicoCell that is connected to both the electrical grid and solar, the PicoCell enables power factor correction, to present unity power factor from the electrical grid.

Industrial VFDs do not have the ability to run single phase AC loads which are designed to be grid connected, power factor correction (PFC) and DC link circuits in industrial VFDs are designed for three phase motor loads only. However, the PicoCell’s hardware design is flexible and has additional voltage boost circuit hardware that has dual functionality.  It enables a wide input voltage range from solar PV, but also filters the ripple from single phase AC motor loads. This filtering algorithm is embedded in the PicoCell’s firmware.